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The Effects of the UV-Blocker Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3) on Planulae Swimming and Metamorphosis of the Scyphozoans Cassiopea xamachana and Cassiopea frondosa
Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
Department of Zoology and Neurobiology, Ruhr-Universität, 44781 Bochum, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Oceans 2020, 1(4), 174-180; https://doi.org/10.3390/oceans1040013
Received: 7 July 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 24 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Future of Coral Reefs: Research Submitted to ICRS 2020, Bremen, Germany)
Benzophenones are UV-blockers found in most common sunscreens. The ability of Scyphozoan planula larvae of Cassiopea xamachana and C. frondosa to swim and complete metamorphosis in concentrations 0–228 µg/L benzophenone-3 (oxybenzone) was tested. Planulae of both species swam in erratic patterns, 25–30% slower, and experienced significant death (p < 0.05) in the highest concentrations of oxybenzone tested, whereas the larvae exhibited normal swimming patterns and no death in ≤2.28 µg/L oxybenzone. In addition, metamorphosis decreased 10–30% over 3 days for both species maintained in 228 µg/L oxybenzone. These effects do not involve symbiotic dinoflagellates, as planulae larvae of Cassiopea sp. are aposymbiotic. It is concluded that oxybenzone can have a detrimental impact on these jellyfish. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cassiopea xamachana; C. frondosa; Scyphozoan; planulae; settlement; metamorphosis; oxybenzone▼ Show Figures